Adverb (A word that gives additional information about how, when or where an action takes place, e.g. He walked slowly, They will arrive tomorrow)
In the Arabic language adverbs are also categorized as nouns. There are two kinds of adverb namely adverb of time and adverb of place. Example of adverb of time are قَبْلَ , بَعْدَ etc. Example of adverb of place are مَعَ, عِنْدَ, تَحْتَ etc. The adverb is termed as ظَرْفٌ . The following table gives corresponding meanings of few adverbs.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:32). The adverb of location بَيْنَ (between) is present in this verse.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:86). The adverb of place عِنْدَ (near) is present in this verse.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:93). The adverb of location بَيْنَ (between) is not present in this verse.
Adverb followed by a direct noun or pronoun will lead to a construction called as ظَرْف مُضَاف إِلَيْهِ.
Examples are below.
|Meaning||ظَرْف مُضَاف إِلَيْهِ|
|with Allah||مَعَ اللهِ|
|After prayer||بَعْدَ الصَّلاةِ|
|Near Allah||عِنْدَ اللهِ|
|before sunset||قَبْلَ الْغُرُوْبِ|
|Under the table||تَحْتَ الْمَكْتَبِ|
|Near the door||لَــدَى الْــبَــابِ|
Just a note that the alif of لَــدَى (read as lada) changed to ي when muzaaf iliahi is a pronoun (لَــدَيْــكَ).
- State TRUE or FALSE: In the phrase تَحْتَ السَّفِيْنَةِ (Under the ship) the word السَّفِيْنَةِ is مُضَاف إِلَيهِ and مَجْرُور.
- State TRUE or FALSE: In the verse Quran (18:95) بَيْنَ (between) came two times and the attached pronouns كُمْ and هُمْ are مُضَاف إِلَيهِ and مَجْرُور.
- State TRUE or FALSE: In the verse Quran (18:94) بَيْنَ (between) is not present.
Answers to the Exercises
|Adverbs (Seq # 28)||T, T, T|
|ظَرْف مُضَاف إِلَيْهِ (Seq # 29)||T, T, F|