Learn Arabic · Nouns

Triptotes and Diptotes

Note: Quran (15:18:1) represents the Para (Juzz) # 15, chapter # 18, and verse # 1.

Triptotes and Diptotes (Seq # 11)

This is a very important topic to understand. Nouns in the Arabic language are categorized as Triptotes and Diptotes based on the complete or partial declension of nouns.

A noun with complete declension has two dammah when it is مَرفُوعٌ, two fatah when it is مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ and two kathrah when it is مَجْرُورٌ. Such a noun is called as triptote.

Triptote Examples

Case Examples of Triptotes
مَــرْفُــوْعٌ كَتابٌ مُحَمَّدٌ حَامِدٌ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ كِتَابًــا مُحَمَّدً حَامِدً
مَــجْــرُوْرٌ كِتَابٍ مُحَمَّدٍ حَامِدٍ

A noun with partial declension has one dammah when it is مَرفُوعٌ, one fatah when it is مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ and one fatah when it is مَجْرُورٌ. In partial declension a noun do not end with tanveen. Such a noun is called as diptote.

Diptote Examples

Case Examples of Diptotes
مَــرْفُــوْعٌ مَرْيَمُ إبْراهيمُ فِرْعَونُ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ مَرْيَمَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ
مَــجْــرُوْرٌ مَرْيَمَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ

Observe the endings in the end of above nouns. They don’t end with tanveens.

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (15:18:31). The word أَسَــاوِرَ (A bracelets) which is a diptote is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:106). The word جَهَنَّمُ (hell) which is a diptote is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:94). The words يَــأجُــوجَ and مَــأجُــوجَ are diptotes and not present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (15:18:37). The word رَجُــلاً (A man) is a triptote and is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The word سَــاعَــةٌ (An hour) is a triptote.

Ending of a Diptote noun is Fatah in case of مَنْصُوْبٌ  and مَجْرُوْرٌ (Seq # 12)

In the last session we have learnt triptotes and diptotes. For its importance, it is to note once again that the endings of Diptotes in the case of مَــنْصُوبٌ  and مَــجرُورٌ  form are Fatah (i.e, Zabar). Observe the following examples to recognize Fatah (i.e, Zabar) in the case of مَــنْصُوبٌ  and مَــجرُورٌ.

Case Examples of Diptotes
مَــرْفُــوْعٌ مَرْيَمُ إبْراهيمُ فِرْعَونُ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ مَرْيَمَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ
مَــجْــرُوْرٌ مَرْيَمَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: The مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ ending of a diptote noun is not Dammah.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ and مَــجْــرُورٌ endings of a diptote noun is Fatah.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Diptote nouns do not end with tanveen (two dammah, two fatah, two kathrah).

First two categories of Diptotes (Seq # 13)

There are few categories of nouns which are diptotes in the Arabic language. In this session, two categories with examples are given below.

Category # 1  (All feminine person (Women) name nouns are Diptotes)

Case Examples of Feminine Person names
Marfoun مَرْيَمُ فَاطِمةُ زَيْنَبُ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ مَرْيَمَ فَاطِمةَ زَيْنَبَ
Majroor مَرْيَمَ فَاطِمةَ زَيْنَبَ

Category # 2  (All Foreign name nouns are Diptotes)

Arabic language considers the names like Ibrahim, Ismail, London, Washington, Yaajooj, Majooj etc as foreign names as compare to Mohammed, Hamid etc as local names. So, all foreign name nouns in the Arabic language are diptotes. Examples below.

Case Examples of Foreign name nouns
Marfoun لَنْدَنُ إبْراهيمُ فِرْعَونُ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ لَنْدَنَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ
Majroor لَنْدَنَ إبْراهيمَ فِرْعَونَ

Other categories of diptotes will be discussed as and when required.

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: In the Arabic language, the name مُحَمَّدٌ is not a foreign name.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:94). The two words يَأجُوجَ and مَأجُوجَ are diptotes because they are foreign names and are present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: All the foreign name nouns are diptotes in the Arabic language.

Answers to the exercises

Triptotes and Diptotes (Seq # 11) T, T, F, T, T
Ending of a Diptote noun is Fatah in case of مَنْصُوب  and مَجْرُور (Seq # 12) T, T, T
First two categories of Diptotes (Seq # 13) T, T, T

diptote-triptote

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