Learn Arabic · Prepositions

Prepositions & Jaar-Majroor

Prepositions, heavily used topic in Quran (Seq # 15)

See the below table of prepositions.

English Meaning Proposition
from مِنْ
in فِي
for لِ
With, by, in, of, on (Its meaning depends on the context) بِ
on عَلَى
towards إِلَى
About عَــنْ

Nouns become مَــجْــرُوْرٌ if they come after any preposition. Consider the noun الْــكِــتَــابُ (the book). By default it is مَــرْفُــوْعٌ. Preposition مِــنْ when comes before makes this noun الْــكِــتَــابُ to مَــجْــرُوْرٌ as shown below.

مــِنْ + الْــكِــتَــابُ = مِــنَ الْــكِــتَــابِ

The combination of this “Preposition and Noun” is called as جَــارٌ مَجْرُوْرٌ (Jaar-Majroor). This combination is heavily used in Quran.

Examples

Meaning Jaar Majroor Noun Preposition
from the book مِــنَ الْــكِــتَــابِ = اَلْــكِــتَــابُ + مِــنْ
from the house مِنَ الْبَيْتِ = اَلْبَــيْتُ + مِــنْ
in the cave فِي الْكَهْفِ = اَلْــكَــهْــفُ + فِي
in the sea فِي الْبَحْرِ = الْــبَــحْرُ + فِي
from evil مِنْ شَرٍّ = شَــرٌّ + مِــنْ
on Allah بِللَّهِ = اَلــلـَّـهُ + بِ

The prepositionبِ has lot of meanings depending on the context. These contexts will be learned in future.

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:37). The phrase مِنْ تُرَابٍ (from dust) which is a Jaar-Majroor combination is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:40). The word السَّمَاءِ (The sky) is مَجْرُور because of the preposition مِنْ before it.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:19). The word الُمَدِيْنَةِ (the city, the town) which is مَجْرُور is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:10). The word الْكَهْفِ is مَجْرُور because of the preposition إِلَى.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:15). The word اَللهِ is مَجْرُور because of the preposition عَلَى.

Behavior of Diptote with Preposition (Seq # 16)

We learned earlier that Fatah is the ending for diptote noun in مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ and مَجْــرُورٌ cases. One simple example is below. Observe the Majroor case, it has Fatah.

مَــرْفُــوْعٌ جَهَنَّمُ
مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ جَهَنَّمَ
مَجْــرُورٌ جَهَنَّمَ

When a preposition comes before any diptote noun, the diptote noun will also become مَجْــرُورٌ with Fatah as the ending. This understanding should be clear with the following example.

Example:

فِــي + جَــهَــنَّــمُ = فِــي جَــهَــنَّــمَ

فِــي جَهَنَّمَ (in hellfire). Here جَهَنَّمَ is مَجْــرُورٌ.

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:31). The diptote noun أسَاوِرَ (bracelets) is مَجْرُور because of the preposition مِنْ before it.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:94). The two diptote nouns يَأجُوجَ and مَأجُوجَ are not مَجْرُور as there is no preposition before them.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:106). The diptote noun جَهَنَّمُ is مَرْفُوع.

Prepositions when with Pronouns (Seq # 17)

Pronouns may come after prepositions. So, when these pronouns (pronouns comes under the category of nouns in the Arabic language) join prepositions we get again the construction “Jaar Majroor”. The Jaar Majroor is a two words combination or construction. The below table is one such example. In the below table of Jaar Majroor construction the final endings هُ , هُمْ, كَ, كُمْ,يِ, نَا are called as attached pronouns. These attached pronouns (هُ , هُمْ, كَ, كُمْ,يِ, نَا) are in مَجْــرُورٌ case. No need to worry remembering these attached pronouns, they come by time and little practice.

Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
from him (masculine) مِنْهُ = هُوَ + مِنْ
from them (masculine) مِنهُمْ = هُمْ + مِنْ
from you (masculine) مِنْكَ = أَنْتَ + مِنْ
from you all (masculine) مِنْكُم = أَنْتُمْ + مِنْ
from me مَنِّي = أنَا + مِنْ
from us مِنَّا = نَحْنُ + مِنْ

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:83). The attached pronoun هُ in the جَــارٌ مَجْــرُوْرٌ construction مِنْهُ is مَجْرُور.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (16:18:81). The جَــارٌ مَجْــرُوْرٌ construction مِنْهُ is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:39). The attached pronoun كَ in the جَــارٌ مَجْــرُوْرٌ construction مِنْكَ is مَــرْفُــوْعٌ.

Vocative Harmony, Jaar Majroor case of “for” preposition with attached pronoun (Seq # 18)

See the below table for the preposition “for” (لِ).

Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
for him (masculine) لَهُ = هُوَ + لِ
for them (masculine) لَهُمْ = هُمْ + لِ
for you (masculine) لَكَ = أَنْتَ + لِ
for you all (masculine) لَكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + لِ
for me لِي = أنَا + لِ
for us لَنَا = نَحْنُ + لِ

If you see above table the preposition “for” upon its independence is “لِ”. It is “Li” with kathrah (Zair). When it joins with direct noun it is written as “لِ”. Examples are لِــلــنَّــاسِ (For the mankind), لِــأَدَمَ (for Adam) etc. But when being joined with pronoun it is getting Fatah (Zabar). There is no Arabic grammatical rule here. It is to get “vocative harmony” (something easy to say). Saying “Lihu” is difficult. And saying “Lahu” is easy and gets vocative harmony. That is the reason it is getting Fatah.

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:2). The “Jaar-Majroor” لَــهُــمْ (for them) is present in this verse.
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The “Jaar-Majroor” construction لَــنَــا (for us) is present in the verse Quran (18:10).
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The “Jaar-Majroor” construction لَــهُ (for him) is present in the verse Quran (18:43).

Jaar Majroor with other prepositions (Seq # 19)

The below tables provide Jaar-Majroor constructions with 6 pronouns and prepositions.

Meaning (considering in this case ‘with’) Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
with him (masculine) بِهِ = هُوَ + بِ
with them (masculine) بِهِمْ = هُمْ + بِ
with you (masculine) بِكَ = أَنْتَ + بِ
with you all (masculine) بِكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + بِ
with me بِي = أنَا + بِ
with us بِنَا = نَحْنُ + بِ
Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
in him (masculine) فِيهِ = هُوَ + فِي
in them (masculine) فِيهِمْ = هُمْ + فِي
in you (masculine) فِيكَ = أَنْتَ + فِي
in you all (masculine) فِيكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + فِي
in me فِيَّ = أنَا + فِي
in us فِيْنَا = نَحْنُ + فِي
Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
On him (masculine) عَلَيْهِ = هُوَ + عَلَى
On them (masculine) عَلَيْهِمْ = هُمْ + عَلَى
On you (masculine) عَلَيْكَ = أَنْتَ + عَلَى
On you all (masculine) عَلَيْكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + عَلَى
On me عَلَيَّ = أنَا + عَلَى
On us عَلَيْنَا = نَحْنُ + عَلَى
Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
towards him (masculine) إِلَيْهِ = هُوَ + إلَى
Towards them (masculine) إِلَيْهِمْ = هُمْ + إلَى
Towards you (masculine) إِلَيْكَ = أَنْتَ + إلَى
Towards you all (masculine) إِلَيْكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + إلَى
Towards me إِلَيَّ = أنَا + إلَى
Towards us إِلَيْنَا = نَحْنُ + إلَى
Meaning Jaar Majroor Detached Pronoun Preposition
about him (masculine) عَنْهُ = هُوَ + عَنْ
about them (masculine) عَنْهُم = هُمْ + عَنْ
about you (masculine) عَنْكَ = أَنْتَ + عَنْ
about you all (masculine) عَنْكُمْ = أَنْتُمْ + عَنْ
about me عَنِّي = أنَا + عَنْ
about us عَنَّا = نَحْنُ + عَنْ

Exercises

  • State TRUE or FALSE: The Jaar-Majroor combination إِلَىَّ (towards me) is present in the verse Quran (18:110).
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The Jaar-Majroor combination بِهِ is present in the verse Quran (18:5).
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The Jaar-Majroor combination عَلَيْكُم (on you all) is not present in the verse Quran (18:20).
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The Jaar-Majroor combination عَلَيْهِمْ (on them) is present two times in the verse Quran (18:21).
  • State TRUE or FALSE: The Jaar-Majroor combination عَنْهُمْ (About them) is present in the verse Quran (18:28).

Answers to Exercises

Prepositions, heavily used topic in Quran (Seq # 15) T, T, T, T, T
Behavior of Diptote with Preposition (Seq # 16) T, T, T
Prepositions when with Pronouns (Seq # 17) T, T, F
Vocative Harmony, Jaar Majroor case of “for” preposition with attached pronoun (Seq # 18) T, T, T
Jaar Majroor with other attached personal pronouns (Seq # 19) T, T, F, T, T
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