Let us learn Vocative particle يا. Its meaning in the English language is “Oh”. Example “Oh Mohammed”, “Oh Abdullah” etc.
The rules for vocative particle are below.
1) If this particle is preceded with triptote person name noun like مُحَمَّدٌ, then it will drop tanveen and leave only one pesh (or dammah).
Translation: Oh Mohammad.
2) When it is preceded with a noun with ال , that is definite noun then اَيُّها should be inserted before.
Translation: Oh mankind
3) If this particle is preceded with Muzaaf Muzaaf iliahi then it will make Muzaaf as مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ. See below when preceded before عَبْدُ اللهِ (worshipper of allah), it became “Ya, Abdallah”
|يا عَبْدَ الله|
Let us take another Muzaaf Muzaaf ilaihi رَبُّـــنَا (our lord) as an example. In order to say “Oh, our lord”, the vocative particle يَا will precede. Thus the phrase will become as يَا رَبَّـــــنَا. It makes the Muzaaf رَبُّ (مَرْفُوعٌ) as رَبَّ (مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ). Sometimes it is seen that the vocative particle gets dropped leaving simply as رَبَّـــــنَا. Under such a case, as the Muzaaf became مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ it has to be understood that يَا is hidden before رَبَّـــــنَا.
Let us take another example, رَبّي (my lord).
رَبِّى = رَبُّ + ي
Adding the vocative particle يَا as below.
يَا + رَبُّ + ي
Because of يَا, رَبُّ (مَرْفُوعٌ) will become رَبَّ (مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ).
يَا + رَبَّ + ي
Ya Mutakallim (ي) forces رَبَّ to become رَبِّ by putting kasrah (ــِ) and the equation will become as below.
يَا + رَبِّ + ي
Now two things (يَا and ي) will drop as below leaving only رَبِّ.
Hence رَبِّــيْ means “my lord” and without ي which is رَبِّ means “Oh, my lord”. Refer to Quran verses: Quran (16:19:4), Quran (16:20:25) and Quran (16:20:125) for رَبِّ.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:10). The vocative particle يَـــا exists before the word رَبـَّنَا and it translates as “Oh, our lord”.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:14). The vocative particle يَــا does not exist before the word رَبُّنــَا and it translates as “Our lord”.
- State TRUE or FALSE: Read the verse Quran (18:109). The vocative particle يَــا does not exist before the word رَبِّي and it translates as “my lord”.
- State TRUE or FALSE: The vocative particle يــَا when comes before مُضَاف مُضَاف إلَيْهِ then it will make مُضَاف as مَــنْــصُــوْبٌ.
- State TRUE or FALSE: When the vocative particle يَا is preceded with a noun with ال , that is definite noun then اَيُّها should be inserted before.
Answers to Exercises
|Vocative particle يــَا (Seq # 61)||T, T, T, T, T|
Source for the above: From the Notes “Trying to understand the Arabic Language” By Mohammed Aijaz
[Source for the above images: Madina Grammar Notes 1 by Dr AbdurRaheem, pg 23-34]